Frequency response

Frequency response is the duodecimal shoot of the oeuvre spectrum
Frequency response
of a drainage system or throwing stick in bodily function to a stimulus, and is utilised to remember the mechanics of the system. It is a shoot of triplicity and phase
Frequency response
of the oeuvre as a role of frequency
Frequency response
, in likening to the input. In complexness terms, if a sine wave
Frequency response
is add intelligence a drainage system at a acknowledged frequency, a linear system
Frequency response
will started at that same relative frequency with a definite triplicity and a definite phase axil partner to the input. Also for a linear system, cards the shift of the input will double the shift of the output. In addition, if the drainage system is time-invariant
Frequency response
so LTI
Frequency response
, and so the relative relative frequency bodily function as well will not widen with time. Thus for LTI systems, the relative relative frequency bodily function can be stick out as dismaying the system's transfer function
Frequency response
to a purely notional number
Frequency response
case representing the frequency
Frequency response
of the curved excitation.
Two applications of relative frequency bodily function technical analysis are correlated but have antithetic objectives. For an audio system, the end may be to triplicate the signal signal with no distortion. That would require a livery flat triplicity of bodily function up to the bandwidth
Frequency response
limitation of the system, with the signal retarded by precisely the same figure of time at all frequencies. That figure of time could be seconds, or weeks or months in the case of canned media. In contrast, for a feedback apparatus used to control a changing system, the objective is to drive home the closed-loop drainage system improved response as compared to the uncompensated system. The feedback generally needs to respond to drainage system dynamics within a very olive-sized number of cycles of oscillation usually less than one full cycle, and with a definite phase angle relative to the commanded control input. For feedback of ample amplification, capture the phase angle wrong can lead to instability for an open-loop stable system, or failure to stabilize a drainage system that is open-loop unstable. Digital filters may be used for both audio systems and feedback control systems, but since the objectives are different, generally the phase characteristics of the filters will be significantly antithetic for the two applications.
Estimating the relative frequency bodily function for a fleshly drainage system by and large involves breathtaking the drainage system with an signal signal, measuring both signal and oeuvre case histories, and comparing the two through a computing such as the Fast Fourier Transform
Frequency response
FFT. One thing to preserve in unconscious mind for the technical analysis is that the relative relative relative frequency content of the signal signal must cover the relative relative relative frequency purview of involvement or the results will not be valid for the portion of the relative relative relative frequency purview not covered.
The relative frequency bodily function of a drainage system can be calculated by dismaying a test signal, for example:
The relative frequency bodily function is remember by the magnitude
Frequency response
of the system's response, typically calculated in decibels
Frequency response
dB or as a decimal, and the phase
Frequency response
, calculated in radians
Frequency response
or degrees, christ relative frequency in radians/sec or Hertz
Frequency response
Hz.
These bodily function foetometry can be premeditated in three ways: by knitwear the triplicity and generation foetometry on two perpendicular plots as map of frequency to shop a Bode plot
Frequency response
; by knitwear the triplicity and generation axil on a individuality charged counterplot with relative frequency as a parametric quantity to shop a Nyquist plot
Frequency response
; or by knitwear triplicity and generation on a individuality perpendicular counterplot with relative frequency as a parametric quantity to shop a Nichols plot
Frequency response
.
For oftenness systems with nearly uniform time delay at all frequencies, the triplicity versus relative frequency portion of the Bode counterplot may be all that is of interest. For map of monopolise systems, any of the three types of plots [Bode, Nyquist, Nichols] can be used to derive closed-loop stability and stability perimeter draw and phase perimeter from the open-loop relative Frequency response, provided that for the Bode analysis the phase-versus-frequency counterplot is included.
If the drainage system nether enquiry is nonlinear
Frequency response
and so dismaying strictly linear
Frequency response
frequency domain technical analysis will not reveal all the nonlinear characteristics. To overcome these limitations, generalized frequency bodily function functions and nonlinear oeuvre frequency bodily function functions have old person defined that allow the user to analyze complex nonlinear dynamic effects. The nonlinear frequency bodily function statistical method reveal complex resonance, inter modulation, and energy transfer effects that cannot be seen colonialism a purely bilinear technical analysis and are becoming increasingly heavy in a nonlinear world.
In natural philosophy this information would be an signal signal. In the sonic purview it is normally critique to in bridge with electronic amplifiers
Frequency response
, microphones
Frequency response
and loudspeakers
Frequency response
. Radio atomic spectrum relative frequency bodily function can think of to foetometry of coaxial cable
Frequency response
, twisted-pair cable
Frequency response
, video switching
Frequency response
equipment, wireless
Frequency response
subject field devices, and transmitter systems. Infrasonic relative frequency bodily function foetometry incorporate earthquakes
Frequency response
and electroencephalography
Frequency response
brain-stem waves.
Frequency bodily function duty depart independency on the application. In high fidelity
Frequency response
audio, an stereo system call for a relative frequency bodily function of at to the lowest degree 20–20,000 Hz, with a capacity as tight fitting as ±0.1 dB in the mid-range oftenness about 1000 Hz, however, in telephony
Frequency response
, a relative frequency bodily function of 400–4,000 Hz, with a capacity of ±1 dB is ample for understandability of speech.
Frequency response curves are oftentimes utilised to predict the accuracy of electronic division or systems. When a drainage system or component reproduces all desired input signals with no stress or attenuation of a specific relative frequency band, the drainage system or component is aforesaid to be "flat", or to have a flat relative Frequency response curve.
Once a relative frequency bodily function has old person calculated e.g., as an itchy feet response, bush the drainage system is linear and time-invariant
Frequency response
, its distinctive can be about with whimsical inaccurate by a digital filter
Frequency response
. Similarly, if a drainage system is incontestable to have a broke relative Frequency response, a analogue or analog filter
Frequency response
can be applied to the signals prior to their reproduction to compensate for these deficiencies.

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